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Download e-book for kindle: A Comprehensive Russian Grammar, Third Edition by Terence Wade

By Terence Wade

The 3rd version of Terence Wade’s A complete Russian Grammar, newly up to date and revised, deals the definitive consultant to present Russian utilization. offers the main entire, actual and authoritative English language reference grammar of Russian on hand at the marketIncludes up to date fabric from a variety of literary and non-literary assets, together with Russian executive websitesFeatures a accomplished method of grammar expositionRetains the available but entire assurance of the former variation whereas including up-to-date examples and illustrations, in addition to insights into numerous new advancements in Russian language utilization because the cave in of the Soviet Union in 1991

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Extra resources for A Comprehensive Russian Grammar, Third Edition

Sample text

Spelling rule 2 о is replaced by е in unstressed position after ж, ч, ш, щ, ц: н мец ‘German’, instr. sing. н мцем, gen. pl. н мцев Spelling rule 3 Initial и is replaced by ы following a prefix ending in a consonant: impf. игр ть/pf. сыгр ть ‘to play’ интер сный ‘interesting’, небезынтер сный ‘not uninteresting’ (for exceptions see 28 (3)(c)) Spelling rule 4 The prefixes без-/бес-; вз-, воз-/вс-, вос-; из-/ис-; раз-/рас- are spelt with з before voiced consonants, voiced sonants or vowels and with с before unvoiced consonants: безз бый ‘toothless’ but бескон чный ‘infinite’; взлет ть ‘to take off ’ but всход ть ‘to rise’; изб ть ‘to beat up’ but исп ть ‘to sup’; разобр ть ‘to dismantle’ but расцеп ть ‘to uncouple’.

2) The suffix -ся is usually pronounced [sm] in the infinitive (м ться ‘to wash’) and the present tense (м ется ‘he washes’), though an alternative soft pronunciation [Jm] is also found in the second-person singular and first-person plural. (3) [Jm] is preferred in participles (сме щийся [Jm] ‘laughing’), the imperative (не см йся ‘don’t laugh’) and the past tense (он сме лся ‘he was laughing’) — except for forms in -сся or -зся (п сся [2passm] ‘was grazing’). g. g. ти [2eKo] ‘these’, весь [LeJ] ‘all’).

Note Unstressed initial и and э and conjunction и are pronounced [p] after a preposition or other word ending in a hard consonant (see 3 (6)): в Ит лию [v1p2taFoju] ‘to Italy’, брат идёт к Ив ну [brat1p2Bot k1p2vanu] ‘my brother is on his way to see Ivan’, над экв тором [nmd1p2kvatmrmm] ‘above the equator’. g. Госизд т [ Mosp2zdat] ‘State Publishing House’. 5 5 Pronunciation 7 Hard and soft consonants With the exception of ж, ц and ш, which are invariably hard, and ч and щ, which are invariably soft, all Russian consonants can be pronounced hard or soft.

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