New PDF release: Ants: standard methods for measuring and monitoring


Numbering greater than 9 thousand defined species, ants rank one of the such a lot ample and frequent of insect groups—the collective weight of ants in tropical forests and grasslands may perhaps represent up to 10 to fifteen percentage of the animal biomass. Written via thirty top ant biologists, this complete e-book describes approaches for surveying the variety of ground-dwelling ants. It introduces a standardized protocol for gathering ant samples in any a part of the realm and for engaging in repeated sampling over the years, which permits researchers to research worldwide and long term styles. protecting elements of ant ecology and taxonomy, species id, specimen education, and assets of sampling gear, this e-book offers the required origin for readers from a variety of backgrounds.

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Extra resources for Ants: standard methods for measuring and monitoring biodiversity

Sample text

4c). Where the head is held in the prognathous position, the lower ends of the postocciput fuse and extend forwards to form a median ventral plate, the gula (Fig. 4d), which may be a continuous sclerotization with the labium. Often the gula is Comp. 4 Sclerotization at the back of the head. Notice the position of the bridge below the occipital foramen with reference to the posterior tentorial pit. Membranous areas stippled, compound eyes cross-hatched. The names of areas defined by sulci are italicized (after Snodgrass, 1960).

Distal to the postmentum, and equivalent to the fused maxillary stipites, is the prementum. The prementum closes the pre-oral cavity from behind. Terminally it bears four lobes, two inner glossae and two outer paraglossae, which are collectively known as the ligula. One or both pairs of lobes may be absent or they may be fused to form a single median process. A palp arises from each side of the prementum, often being three-segmented. The musculature corresponds with that of the maxillae, but there are no muscles to the postmentum.

7 Comp. : 1 Date:19/9/12 Time:13:28:20 Page Number: 8 8 Title Name: CHAPMANSIMPSONANDDOUGLAS Head occiput postoccipital ridge postocciput dorsal arm of tentorium postoccipital suture tentorial bridge subgenal ridge anterior arm of tentorium posterior tentorial pit subgenal sulcus epistomal sulcus clypeus labrum anterior tentorial pit epistomal ridge reduced to a narrow strip by enlargement of the postgenae and sometimes the postgenae meet in the midline, so that the gula is obliterated. The median ventral suture which is thus formed at the point of contact of the postgenae is called the gular suture.

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